The concept of ratio identity has been contested and misunderstood. Some definitions of the term are derived from its biological aspect and others from its social aspect. As a biological classification, a race is derived from a person’s gene pools, physical features, and character qualities. Europeans utilized these features as distinguishing characteristics. They grouped other races hierarchically by a moral quality and physical ability.
Today, the theoretical and literary manifestations of racial identity are not discussed in biological terms, they are discussed as a social construction; this refers to a sense of collective or group identity based on an individual’s perception that he shares a common heritage with a specific racial group.
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Racial identity is also based on social factors. It is seen as an individual’s identification with a part of a larger society with which he shares a common origin as well as a common culture. Racial identity appears to be a frame in which people identify unconsciously and consciously with those with whom they feel a common bond resulting from similar values, traditions, beliefs, and behaviors.
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