In the past, planning has been used as a tool through which segregation has been carried out. Transportation has especially been planned around segregating individuals to low income, middle and income areas.Planning Departments have the mandate to give authority to important areas and social amenities allocation.

In the past, even more, healthcare, education and transportation have been adversely affect through racial segregation. Poorly built facilities are out in the low income household areas where most of the African Americans inhabit. However, with a change in demographics in different neighborhoods, there has been a change since not all Caucasian race individuals are rich and a similar application to African Americans in being low income earners is untrue.

In addition, the Metropolitan Planning Organization is facing criticism on the lack of inclusion of the opinion and needs of the members of the public. Furthermore, the MPO’s do not reflect the majority of the population in terms of race and geography of participants. The MPO’s have a large impact on the public policy and in the introduction and improvement of current social amenities. The bias that is evident from the work conduct by the planners is a symptom of the discrimination that exists in the community.

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In conclusion, there would be better outcomes in terms of planning if all the necessary stakeholders would collaborate in achieving the best interest for the members of the public. Therefore, the health, transportation, planning and housing would achieve better results if they would vote towards the direction giving best outcome for the public.

Association of Metropolitan Planning Organizations. (2014). Retrieved 13th April 2015 from

Garcia, I. (2015) The Politics of Metropolitan Planning: Planning.

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