Annotations: 2nd to 4th digit ratio and Lactose tolerance (or intolerance)
Paul, S. N., Kato, B. S., Cherkas, L. F., Andrew, T., & Spector, T. D. (2006). Heritability of the second to fourth digit ratio (2d: 4d): A twin study. Twin Research and Human Genetics, 9(02), 215-219.
The study discussed in the article is designed to utilize the twin study format with a view to examining genetic influences digit ratiosdeterminedby x-ray. The study was conducted on a sample of 456 twin pairs that were al of the female sex and aged between 18 to 79 years. 148 pairs were monozygotic while 308 were dizygotic. These twin pairs had their finger lengths derived from variance components analysis of their hands; and then this was used to contrast and approximate the environmental as well as the genetic effects on this phenotype. The study only utilized male subjects since the subjects were all got from the St Thomas’ adult twin registry; that only has records for females.
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. A lactose tolerance test was conducted on all the participants and their genotype was also determined from their genomic DNA. The study concluded by establishing a real-time PCR procedure to genotype the C-13910T DNA variant that can viably replace lactose tolerance testing in adults. However, the results of the study were conducted on populations with an European descent and as such can not be said to be representative of other ethnic groups. This would therefore call for more studies on other non European populations so as to come up with a definitive answer.
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